Basso Continuo's Music Page
[Top Page] > [Gloria Diary] > [Gloria Diary 2001(2)]
← Gloria" Diary 2001(1) "Gloria" Diary 2001(3) →
On December, 2001, the concert of "Gloria Ensemble and Choir Vol.9" was performed. I belong this group as a harpsichord player. The pieces are Joseph Haydn and Michael Haydn. Umm...It needs basso continuo's activity and I can easily join as a harpsichord player ... What was happend ? Please read the following...
1. In "'Gloria' diary 2001" I arranged the articles so that the older is upper location and the newer is lower location.
2. I divide "Gloria Diary 2001" as the following;
In the Japanese BBS, Uttchy-san (This is his website all of which are in Japanese.), who is the chief conductor of the chorus, appointed several points of correspondences between the words and music in "Offertorium" in both requiems. (M. Haydn's and Mozart's). He also mentioned about the characteristic of the music in "Confutatis" in both requiems.
I feel that I must be in a hurry. I have been analyzing this music, but the speed of my analysis is too late. If my analysis is in such speed as before, it cannot be ended after the concert performance!
Although the next section of the 2nd "Requiem aeternam" is important, (its music appeared in "Communio" again.), I was worried about the lateness, and I decided to omit the analysis of the 2nd "Requiem aeternam" and the following "Kyrie".
Well, I am going to next music that is "Sequentia" (or "Sequenz"). Oops! This music is very long and long. It has 291 bars. and 30 pages in its score. Incredible! Its length is comparable with as the roll of toilet paper!(<-- stupid saying :-P)
I become worry. Can we perform it? Please give me enough time and "requiem (peace)" which is not "aeternam (eternal)"! X (
In the text of "Requiem", the chapter of "Sequentia" begins with the ominous and violent words, i.e. "Dies irae, dies illa / The day of anger, that day". The words, "Dies irae / The day of anger" make us, who are fans of classical music in Japan, remember famous melody of "C-B-C-A-B-G-A-..." (This is in English reading. In German reading, it is "C-H-C-A-H-G-A-...".) used in famous pieces such as "Symphonie Fantastique" by Hector Berlioz. This melody is "Dies irae / The day of anger" in Gregorian chant. Of course, M. Haydn composed his own music and it is completely different from the melody of the above Gregorian chant. and W. A. Mozart too. By the way, the text of "Sequentia" is very long and long. In composing music for requiem, "Sequentia" is to be the most important chapter. (And I feel that "Credo (I believe)" is the most important chapter for normal Mass.) W. A. Mozart would understand it, and he divided "Sequenz" into 6 subchapters, that is,
(I don't know why it has been calling "Sequenz" in Mozart's requiem and "Sequentia" in M. Haydn's requiem.)
The people, who have dealt with these pieces of music, would feel that the music was matched to each subchapter only with reading these titles.
But M. Haydn did not divided this long text. I cannot help knowing how he treated this text in the music of his requiem.
Now, I will show the beginning of "Dies irae, dies illa (That day, the day of anger)".
Great! This music is extremely violent and it completely expresses the contents of text, i.e.
Dies irae, dies illa (That day is the day of anger)
solvet saeclum in favilla (Heaven and earth in ashes ending)
The combination of tremolo and syncopation rhythm in strings, arpeggio and syncopation rhythm in basso continuo, sequences of hitting same notes by timpani and clarini (trumpets), and all part has the indication of "f (forte)"... all of these items expressed the contents of the text. I cannot find how to say these wonderful techniques of music.
By the way, I am feeling that I have already know this music... Oops! It is from Mozart's requiem KV 626! How stupid I am! (Bomb!)
Now, I will show authentic(:-P) score of the beginning of "Sequentia" by M. Haydn.
Oh, it is also great! The key of C-minor directly makes us to remember the fifth symphony by L. van Beethoven. I feel that this is the origin or the ancestor of "Beethoven's C-minor". And also all instruments are indicated with "f (forte)" like Mozart's. I feel that the chorus parts should be performed with "f (forte)" although they do not have this indication. The unstable movement of arpeggio in basso continuo can be also found in Mozart's music and it can be regarded as the expression of violence. There are no tremolo or no syncopation found in Mozart's. But the 1st and 2nd violin parts have fine and violence arpeggio. They also have "sequences of hitting same notes" like timpani or clarini in Mozart's "Dies irae". These "sequences of hitting same notes" expressed "excitement". (It was a custom of baroque music and early music of classical period. It can be related that the custom of music in Renaissance period (such as "Palestrina style") did not allow two or more hits of same note.) "Triple time" is dramatic meter. I remember that W. A. Mozart composed a masterpiece of piano concertos in same key (C-minor) and same meter (triple time).
The second subchapter of "Sequentia (or Sequenz)" begins with the words, "Tuba mirum spargens sonum / The sound of strange trumpet spreading".
W. A. Mozart composed for this text with very impressive technique. Anyone who knows Mozart's requiem KV 626 can remember this beginning.
The following score shows the beginning of "Tuba mirum" subchapter in Mozart's KV626 requiem.
Mozart used "solo trombone", which symbolized "Tuba mirum / Strange trumpet" effectively.
The bass soloist singer imitates the figure of trombone with the words of "Tuba mirum". These sounds force the listeners to be impressed with the image of "Strange trumpet".
Then, in M. Haydn's requiem, we will approach "Tuba mirum". As I described on last March 16, he treated whole of "Sequentia" as one movement. So "Tuba mirum" halfway appears in the movement of "Sequentia". Listening without care may let us miss to notify "Tuba mirum".
But M. Haydn suggested with his own orchestration. Please let me show the score of the bars of "Tuba mirum" and its neighbor.
The yellow regions are the words of "Tuba mirum spargens sonum / The sound of strange trumpet spreading" and the orchestration considered as the set of direct expression of these words.
In Mozart's requiem KV 626, "trombone" is the most important role of "Tuba mirum". But in M. Haydn's music, all trombones are taking back seats. They are only emphasizing alto, tenor, and bass in chorus. (I have already written that the manner such like these is called "colla parte".)
On the other hand, we should remark the behaviors of "trumpets", "clarini", and "timpani".
These three sets of instruments have been in rest just before "Tuba mirum" through nine measures. At the point of the beginning of "Tuba mirum", i.e. at the 23rd bar, they suddenly appear with the indication of "f (frote)".
Especially, the sixteenth notes in two clarini and two trumpets stand out. In "Sequentia", the sixteenth notes have not appeared in brass until the 23rd measure.
The words "Tuba mirum / Strange trumpet" and the sixteenth notes in brass appear at once. I cannot say that it is any accident.
Certainly, "Tuba mirum" in W. A. Mozart's KV 626 is more impressive. But reading the score of M. Haydn's requiem in detail, I feel his intention to let "Tuba mirum / Strange trumpet" to be impressive with his own way.
I received e-mail from my best friends, "Mr. HANE". It was report of the training of chorus in "Gloria choir". I will quote some sentences... (The original had been in Japanese. I translated in English and emphasized some words.)
It was the first training of whole member of chorus. The beginning one-hour was the time of Mr. Kataoka's "voice-training". He noticed that there are differences between Japanese and Latin language, especially, the vowel of "e", and that we should be careful with the harmony when we sound in the range of the pitch between "a0" and "e1" and where chest voice and head voice are mixed.
After that, we trained the "Kyrie " and "Et in terra pax hominibus " conducted by Mr. Uttchy. The contents were as usual, i.e., the location of the breath, tracing the music in a few times, picking up some sections to be cared especially, and the practice dividing into parts (S, A, T, B). I felt that there are few direction of dynamic ("forte" or "piano") in these two pieces of music and that it is not clear in the about of the half of these pieces of music. Then I will mention the favorite, i.e., a party...
(I omit after this sentence.: - P)
Uttchy -san promptly started to treat "J. Haydn". It seems that he detected my wandering in "M. Haydn". :-( About the sentence I emphasized in the above e-mail, I always think,
"It should be finally decided by the conductor. But it must be useful that one person of us, i.e., each player or singer considers about it."
And I want to say that I have been performed these considerations on this web page.
"By the way, hmm..., 'J. Haydn's Mass'..., I will see at a glance...."
I browsed this music, to make the contents of the reply to Mr. HANE. What section is good for browsing? Perhaps "Credo (I believe)" would be good.
The words of "Credo " make the sentence of "I believe (something else)." And the contents of "something else" are various things related for Christianity. And in them, we can find the outline of Jesus Christ's life.
"Et incarnatus est de Spiritu Sancto ex Maria Virgine, et homo factus est. /
By the power of the Holy Spirit He became incarnate from the Virgin Mary and was made man."
"Crucifixus etiam pro nobis: sub Pontio Pilato passus, et sepultus est. /
For our sake, He was crucified under Pontio Pilato (Pontius Pilate), He suffered death and was buried."
"Et resurrexit tertia die, secundum Scripturas. /
On the third day He was resurrected in accordance with the Scriptures."
"Et ascendit in coelum: sedet ad dexteram Patris./
He ascended into heaven, and is seated at the right hand of the Father."
These sentences are the climax of "Credo " as well "Mass Text". The contents include various things and specific events. Especially there is proper noun of a person, "Pontio Pilato(Pontius Pilate)". So I considered that I could image the situation of the composer when I browsed these sentences.
And the most important sentence is "Crucifixus / He was crucified". I will pick up the examples of "great composers", who are J. S. Bach and L. van Beethoven only :-(. (I also have W. A. Mozart's "Mass in C-minor, KV 427", but unfortunately, it is incomplete and it does not include the music of "Crucifixus / He was crucified".
At first, I will show the music from J. S. Bach's "Messe in h-moll / Mass in B-minor".
We must be impressed on this music for "Crucifixus / He was crucified" and "Et resurrexit / He was resurrected", especially, Lament Bass in"Crucifixus / He was crucified", the decrease of the volume of the sound just before "Et resurrexit / He was resurrected" (There are the indications of "Piano".), changing the key, and the music suddenly changed to the gorgeous orchestration in "Et resurrexit / He was resurrected", where the leading role is the 1st trumpet. Preceding "Crucifixus / He was crucified" was ended with Piano and a cappella except Continuo, so the gorgeous orchestration in the beginning of "Et resurrexit / He was resurrected" is very impressive.
OK? Then I will pick up the next example, that is, from L. van. Beethoven's "Missa solemnis D-dur , (D-major, op. 123)".
We can call Bach's "Crucifixus / He was crucified" is "the Lament". On the other hand we can call Beethoven's is "the Heartrending" or "the Painful". The violent syncopation in the beginning, the frequent alternation between f (forte) and p (piano) without letup, the appearance of the diminished seventh code, whose resolution recalls the new other diminished seventh..., they are the different expression of the grief from J. S. Bach.
And in "Et resurrexit / He was resurrected",
the composer used a cappella chorus with f (forte). It seems to be "amazing". And subsequent music of "Et ascendit / He ascended" has many introductions of "upward motion of scale", which is the music expression of the word, "ascendit / ascent". All of these items are impressive for the audiences. It is completely different style from J. S. Bach, but it is one of the greatest expressions of the words in music.
Now, how about the music we shall treat, i.e., J. Haydn's "Missa brevis "? We will see "Crucifixus / He was crucified" and its neighbors. J. Haydn's "Missa brevis " is short music for about 15 minutes. Of course, "Credo " is very short. It would be about or less than 5 minutes. The beginning words of "Credo " is shown in the following table.
|Paragraph No.||Original text||English translation|
|1||Credo in unum Deum, Patrem omnipotentem, factorem coeli et terrae, visibilium omnium, et invisibilium.||I believe in one God, the Father, the Almighty, maker of heaven and earth, Of all that is visible and invisible.|
|2||Et in unum Dominum Iesum Christum Filium Dei unigenitum (This paragraph is omitted in J. Haydn's "Missa brevis ".)||I believe in one Lord Jesus Christ, the only Son of God. (This paragraph is omitted in J. Haydn's "Missa brevis ".)|
|3||Et ex Patre natum ante omnia saecula.
Deum de Deo, lumen de lumine, Deum verum de Deo vero.
|Eternally begotten of the Father.
God from God, Light from Light, True God from true God.
|4||Genitum, non factum, consubstantialem Patri, per quem onmia facta sunt.||Begotten, not made; of one being with the Father; through Him all things were made.|
|5||Qui propter nos homines et propter nostram salutem descendit de coelis.||For us men, and for our salvation, He came down from heaven.|
Then I will show the beginning of "Credo "...
The music is started with the 1st, 3rd, 4th, and 5th paragraph sung almost at once. Oh! It confuses me! X -(
I have met only with J. S. Bach or L. van Beethoven's "very long" mass. So this music by J. Haydn makes me to feel,"What's the matter on earth?"(Bomb!)
Then, the above 4 paragraphs are performed only 8 bars, and after intermission of instruments for 2 bars, the 11th measure from the beginning of "Credo " is already "Et incarnatus est ". (Let me add that, in J. S. Bach's Mass in B-minor, there are 209 bars from the beginning of "Credo " to "Et incarnatus est ". In W. A. Mozart's Mass in C-minor (KV 427, incomplete), there are 111 bars. In L. van Beethoven's "Missa solemnis "(Op. 123), there are 123 bars. The length of J. Haydn's music is less than 1/10 of above pieces.
I want to say,
"Hey! Mr. Haydn! It is too early, isn't it?"
Anyway, we go to "Et incarnatus est " and the after....
...it is suddenly changed.
I can appoint many differences from the preceding section of "Credo ".
the dynamics (the indication from f (forte) to p (piano),
the beats (from "4/4" to "3/4"),
the expression marks (tempo indication from "Allegro" to "Adagio"),
and the chorus stops preceding "confusion(?)", and takes almost united action.
J. Haydn changed his situation to compose, from "the noisy(?) declaration of the belief" to "the grave manner" at the starting point of "Et incarnatus est ", which finally tells the life of Jesus Christ.
And then, we encounter, at the 2nd beat in the 31st measure, "For our sake, Jesus Christ was crucified under Pontio Pilato (Pontius Pilate)",i.e., "Crucifixus etiam pro nobis: sub Pontio Pilato passus, et sepultus est."...
The chorus is only on bass. The other parts are in rest. We cannot find any indications of dynamics in the chorus part, but there are " pianiss. ",i.e., pp (pianissimo) in the parts of the instruments. The volume of the sound becomes less than the beginning of "Et incarnatus est ". And the bass of chorus and basso continuo are declining with chromatic scale... it is similar to Lament Bass which we found the corresponding section of J. S. Bach's Mass in B-minor.
Credo , I believe (:-P) that J. Haydn studied many piece of music for Masse by preceding composers. Perhaps, J .S. Bach's "Mass in B-minor" would have been included in his studying, and he would have known the contents of J. S. Bach's music.
This "Missa brevis " by J. Haydn is certainly short, but it has clearly same background as J. S Bach's "very long mass in B-minor".
Then , I will write the conclusion...
Umm, marvelous and horrifying J. Haydn! Certainly, "Missa brevis " is short music, but it should be reckoned with!
It is my reply of your e-mail, Mr. HANE. Thank you! ( :-P )
It had to "drop in at", but my interest is now "J. Haydn's Missa brevis". So let me continue to approach this music, especially its "ancient style". I have already mentioned that J. Haydn's Missa brevis looks the past on the date of January, 23. Now I will try to show this.
At first, this is the beginning of "Kyrie".
The instrumentation is, the 1st and the 2nd violins, mixed chorus in four parts, and Basso Continuo. The instrumentation of strings does not include viola and it can be related to "Trio Sonata" in the period of baroque music. But it is almost same as M. Haydn's Requiem except for the lack of woodwinds, brass, or timpani. So we cannot say "this music is in ancient style" only with its insturmenation.
Please let me show the next music. It is the beginning of the 2nd movement, i.e., "Gloria in excelsis Deo"(Glory to God in the highest).
And please let me show the following.
It is from the 1st movement in Arcangelo Corelli's Concert Grosso (op.6-2). We can appoint common characteristic between these two pieces -- for example, alternate change in the unit of two bars, particular figure and its rhythm . J. Haydn's "Gloria in excelsis Deo" is very similar to A.Corelli's music op.6-2.
A. Corelli was the great composer in the period of baroque music, he wrote many sonatas for solo violin and basso continuo. And he is known as the pioneer of "Concerto Grosso" which was the extension of "Trio Sonata". His style was directory affected G. F. Händel. Händel also wrote Concerto Grosso, and its style is similar to A. Corelli. Unfortunately, now I don't have any music of Händel's Concerto Grosso. But there is a movement which is similar to Arcangelo Corelli's Concert Grosso (op.6-2) and it is also similar to J. Haydn's "Missa brevis".
When J. Haydn composed his "Missa brevis", he was 17 years old. It can be said that the field of music traced of the "baroque style". It is possible to say that J. Haydn's "Missa brevis" is on the tradition of baroque music.<See Note>
Another remarkable point is that the music of "Gloria in excelsis Deo" begins from "Et in terra pax hominibus"(And on earth peace to men of goodwill). Just before this music, the priest (or the solo singer which plays a role of the priest) should sing, .
This style is same as the church music in the Renaissance period and it is older than J. S. Bach's "Mass in B-minor".
In my feeling, J. Haydn's "Missa brevis" is toward "the ancient tradition".
It is important also for performing this music.
For example, "appoggiaturas" which
frequently appear should be "long appoggiaturas",
is correct and
are incorrect from the standpoint of "playing exactly".
At the last of today's writing, I show the music that I associated with at the moment when I start to listen "Kyrie" in J. Haydn's "Missa brevis". It is also A. Corelli's Concerto Grosso -- the 1st movement of op.6-12.
Note : A dictionary of music named with "Shin ongaku jiten, Jinmei " (in Japanese, published by ONGAKU NO TOMO SHA Corp., 1982) says that J.Haydn's "Missa brevis" was written about 1749. This dictionary also says that famous articles to describe "the right way of playing in those days (the last period of baroque music)" were published around this year, i.e., J.J.Quanz wrote "Versuch einer Anweisung die Fl*e traversiere zu spielen" on 1752, and C.P.E.Bach wrote "Versuch Eer die wahre Art das Clavier zu spielen - I" on 1753 etc. Then, please click here to return the main sentence. :-)
Please let me know your impression via e-mail or BBS.
Return to top page