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"Gloria" Diary 2001(1)

On December, 2001, the concert of "Gloria Ensemble and Choir Vol.9" was performed. I belong this group as a harpsichord player. The pieces are Joseph Haydn and Michael Haydn. Umm...It needs basso continuo's activity and I can easily join as a harpsichord player ... What was happend ? Please read the following...

1. In "'Gloria' diary 2001" I arranged the articles so that the older is upper location and the newer is lower location.
2. I divide "Gloria Diary 2001" as the following;

October 1, 2000 I knew the exact names of pieces in next "Gloria"

This day is the training day of "Gloria Ensemble & Choir" I have visited the chorus conductor, my teacher of music, and good friend, Uttchy-san's parents' house and we're going to carry keyboard instrument to use. (This is Uttcy-san's web-site. It is in Japanese.)

In our conversation, I asked, "By the way, have the pieces of next 'Gloria' been already decided ? I've heard that they will be Haydn..."
Uttchy-san replied, "Yes. Already decided. They are Michael Haydn's Requiem and Joseph Haydn's 'Missa Brevis with little organ'. I hope you will join next time."
"Thank you." Then I could know the exact name of the pieces in "Gloria" next year. But how can I get these music ?

October 12,2000 Ordering with internet

Internet is convenient ! I have heard that it is possible to order music sheet with internet. I accessed the site of bärenreiter-Verlag and ordered "J.Haydn's 'Missa Brevis'". And then I accessed the site of Carus Verlag and ordered "M.Haydn's 'Requiem'". Paying is with credit card and it is very easy. But when ordering to bärenreiter-Verlag, I mistakenly input my address, so I called bärenreiter-Verlag and told my exact address. It was very hard for non-native English speaker:(.

November 7,2000 The sheets of music were arrived.

After three weeks later, I got the sheets of music of J.Haydn and M.Haydn. Both had ordered with Internet. I felt it was rapid.

The payment (including tax) is about 30 DM. 1 DM is almost 50 yen. So my payment was only 1,500yen for one music sheet. It can be said that it is surprisingly very cheep ! If we try to buy in Japan, it will be 3 - 4 times of this price.

After all, I have got necessary music sheet ! I will return to "Gloria Vol.8"(the Requiem etc.) in several times.

January 23,2001 Going my hometown for my health to recover from depression

This is updating for the first time after two months. In these two months, my health has been seriously changed. Now, I am a depressive. I described it in "music essay". It was a serious disease in my spirit. After writing this essay, my health became bad rather than well. And just before the concert of "Gloria Ensemble and Chior" I started to absent from my office.

After new year's day, on January 11, the Dr. (psychiatrist) proposed me to going my hometown for my health. I obeyed it and decided to leave Tochigi prefecture that is my present address, and go to Aichi prefecture that is my hometown.

But it does not mean that I give up to join the concert of "Gloria Ensemble & Chior". I have already got music score, music sheet of basso continuo and MD of the pieces of next "Gloria Ensemble & Chior". And there is a piano in my mother's house. It is enough environment to prepare "combined training".

I sent e-mail to Uttchy-san, who is the conductor of the chorus (This is his URL in Japanese.), and sent FAX to Mr. Y. Kumekawa, who supervises the orchestra. Its abstract is the following.

" I will go to my hometown for my health. But I have strong will to attend 'Gloria Ensemble & Chior Vol.9.' Please admire me to join the next concert as a keybord player."

And on January 20, I left Tochigi prefecture and arrived Aichi prefecture. Of course, the music sheets and MD of J.Haydn's Mass ("Missa brevis") and M.Haydn's requiem ("Missa pro defuncto, MH 154") -- these are the pieces of next concert -- are in my baggage. In addition, studying these pieces, I brought the following pieces of music, in which includes the pieces adopted by "Gloria Ensemble & Chior" and I experienced to perform in other concert.

In these pieces, Requiem (KV 626) from W.A.Mozart is important. W.A.Mozart composing his requiem was greatly influenced by M.Haydn's requiem. It is said that these two requiems have many similar points each other and it would be interesting to compare these two.

And you will wonder that they include A.Corelli's Concerti Grossi though pieces in my baggage are almost Mass or Requiem. But at least, on the music sheet of these pieces (J.Haydn's and M.Haydn's) in the next concert, there are no appoint to use violas and I feel that in these piece to the relation to "trio sonata". And especially, I feel "ancient style" in J.Haydn's "Missa brevis". So I thought that it would be useful to compare these Mass and Requiem to music of Corelli who invented trio sonata.

From now on, the contents of this "Gloria Diary" will be mainly the progress of my depression and my own analysis including comparison to above pieces. I cannot understand whether this "my own analysis" is correct or not. And I am a depressive. It is possible that my way of thinking is wrong. I would like to the opinions from you, the readers of this essay.

January 27,2001 To start "sleeping learning" (?)

The analysis described above is in no progresses.. I feel that these sets of analysis would be a burden for my brain with depression. Now, instead of these sets of analysis, I perform listening H.Haydn's requiem for the BGM of night sleeping. I try to learn this piece by heart with so called "sleeping learning". But is it in success ?

January 31,2001 I would start "analysis(?)..."

Last Tuesday (January, 30), I went to the hospital to see a psychiatrist. After my medical examination, I gave some medicines and left the hospital. After that, I did not return my (mother's) home directly. In that day, I was going to the center of Nagoya city to enjoy shopping. (Nagoya city is a big city whose population is more than 3,000,000.) But it was interrupted!

Just before finishing to buy a book of music, I suddenly became anxious or felt uneasiness. So after buying a book of music, I return to my (mother's) home as fast as possible. After reaching my (mother's) house, I could barely get piece in my mind.

Oops! My depression is still staying in my brain and this disease sometimes disturbs my quiet life !

By the way, I have been continuing "sleeping learning". But you know, the situation of "lying down on the bed using 'requiem' for the B.G.M." makes us to image bad fortune :-P. In addition, I've found some interesting points in this music. So I will begin to try "analysis" and describe them, though my depression still remains.

At first, I'm going to treat "Quam olim Abrahae promisisti,..." in Offertorium. It is said that this is quite similar to the corresponding section of the requiem, KV 626, that had been started to written by W.A.Mozart and completed by SEmayr. (From now on, we call this "Mozart's Requiem".) Now, I will show these two "Quam olim Abrahae promisisti" and compare them. (Next music sheet)

[Comparison of 'Quam olim Abrahae,...' (Quamolim_Ab.gif, 16.3KB)]

You can easily find same points in these two ... firstly, both has G-minor key. And please see the area with yellow color. We find the similar fugal development in it -- melody and the rhythm of its "fugue" subject, the order of introducing the subject (bass - tenor - alto (- soprano)), and the timing of introducing each voice, etc. It is possible to say that Mozart "stole" or "referred" M.Haydn's "Quam olim Abrahae promisisti". ( I agree these opinion :-P.)

But, at least, there is significant difference between these two pieces. It is the instrumental accompaniment. (Please see the area without yellow color - "Violin I,II" and "Bassi(Continuo)" part in each piece of music.) Mozart uses completely different material from chorus in its accompaniment. And its rhythm adds severity. So, in performing this, the chorus singers and the instrument players would prepare their own countermeasure. (Probably they will be different between chorus and instruments.) But in M.Haydn's requiem, instruments is only tracing chorus in his "Quam olim Abrahae promisisti". This things would require the chorus singers and the instrument players to act together as one body. At least, when we meet with M.Haydn's "Quam olim Abrahae promisisti", we know the difference from W.A.Mozart's in instrumental accompaniment.

February 1,2001 Seeing the introduction before starting chorus

Now, I am going to see the beginning (introduction before the starting of chorus) of this M.Haydn's requiem.

[The beginning 4 bars of M.Haydn's requiem (in full score) (Begin1_Requiem.gif, 8.60KB)]

This is full score of the beginning four bars. It is too large and someone would have to scroll viewer to whole of this score. But we can know the instrumentation of this requiem. Used instruments are, two "Clarini" (The word "clarini" is plural form of "clarino". In this score, "clarino" is no relation to "clarinet". It is one kinds of old-type trumpet. ), two Trumpets (So there are four Trumpets adding two of Clarino.), Timpani tuned in C and G, the 1st and the 2nd Violins, (At least, there are no "Viola" parts in original score. It is eccentric point of the instrumentation of this music.), two or three Trombones (Their roles are mainly tracing chorus parts and emphasize them. The manner such like this is called "colla parte".) and "Bassi" which consist of Cello, Fagotto (Bassoon), Contrabbasso (Double Bass), and Keyboard instrument such as an Organ. This "Bassi" part is typical Basso Continuo. And mixed chorus (Soprano, Alto, Tenor, and Bass, including soloist singers in each vocal part) join them.

However, in order to study or analyze the beginning four bars, only the yellow-colored parts -- strings and Bassi (Basso Continuo) in above score are needed. So I take these parts out of the score and show. See below.

[The beginning 4 bars of M.Haydn's requiem (in Violin I.II and Basso Continuo) (Begin1_Requiem.gif, 2.78KB)]

In this section, the melody introduced in the 2nd violin is imitated after one measure later with fifth higher notes by in the 1st violin (like a fugue !). And there are no indication of viola like "trio sonata". In addition, bass moves mainly eighth notes. So I expect the progress of contrapuntal music like "trio sonata" or "Concerto Grosso" ; to the continuation. For example,

[Example of 'Trio Sonata' style in A.Corelli (Trio_S1e.gif, 7.61KB)]


[Example of 'Trio Sonata' style in J.S.Bach (Trio_S2e.gif, 8.73KB)]


But my "expectation(?)" is completely "disappointed":-P. in 5th bar. From this bar, we encounter harmonic progress. (See below. Pausing parts are not written.)

[From the 4-th to the 9-th bars in 'Introitus' of M.Haydn's requiem (Begin2_Requiem.gif, 10.2KB)]

The 1st violin is the role of "singing melody". The 2nd violin is making codes with arpeggio and, with bass, accompanying the 1st violin. Excepting the lacking of viola, these are important character of typical Vienna classical music. After all, this is not baroque music but music in classical period.

Now, I would like to mention the indication of tempo. In the beginning of M.Haydn's requiem, it is "Adagio". While, in above A.Corelli's music, it is "Andante largo". And above J.S.Bach's music has the indication of "Andante".

(You may doubt that these indications of tempo had been written irresponsibly by the people in the later period. But I refer authoritative "Urtext". I refer "Edition Eulenburg" for Corelli, "Vienna Urtext Edition" or "Bärenreiter-verlag" for J.S.Bach, "Ongaku-no-tomo edition" based on "Bärenreiter-verlag" for Mozart, and "Carus-Verlag" for M.Haydn. So irresponsible writing would be eliminated as thorough as possible. And referring these "Urtext", I wrote down music sheet in this webpage using notation software.)

But I feel that these indication of tempo is almost same. This thing may be one example of the fact, "The meaning of tempo indications or expression marks are not in common in all period. For example, 'Allegro' in baroque music is different from 'Allegro' in romantic music."

February 2,2001 To see the starting points of chorus

Now, I make seeing intruduction to be finished (bomb!), and we will be in the front of the entrance of chorus appearance. I am going to see the beginning some measures of the starting chorus. It is from bar 11 in "Introitus".. See next music sheet.

[Starting point of chorus in 'Introitus' (Chor_Start_Requiem.gif, 5.03KB)]

This is based on the introduction (bars 1-2) and developed it. The melody that uses material of the introduction appeared in bass is imitated by tenor, alto, and soprano with the same manners as regular fugal rules. The interval of imitation is for a measure.

Then, in W.A.Mozart's requiem, see the corresponding section - beginning of chorus. It is from bar 8 in "Introitus". Please let me show the following.

[Starting point of chorus in 'Introitus' of Mozart's requiem (Mozart_Chor_Start.gif, 6.96KB)]

At first, we notice that the way of starting thematic motif in each voicesis similar to M.Haydn's. ( But the way like this had been already typical method to start religious music in the period of Palestrina. Composers in tremendous number used this manner. So it may not be so remarkable. Certainly it is important to know that the order of starting and using fugal manner are in common in both requiems.) In Mozart's, the interval of starting of each voice is for the half of measure while it is one measure in M.Haydn's. So it can be said that the speed of increasing tension in Mozart's is faster than M.Haydn's.

By the way, the points I want to remark is their two (1st and 2nd) violin parts. See below.

[Rhythmic similarity of violin in the starting point of chorus in 'Introitus' (Vn_in_Chorstart.gif, 14.7KB)]

The rhythm in two pieces is very similar to each other. It consists of the succession of fine syncopations. I feel that this syncopation rhythm contributes dramatic starting of chorus in both requiems.

February 15,2001 A score in the large package

I received a large package from Mr. Y.Mumekawa. The contents of the package are the "reflecting items" (or "regretting items (?)") of "Gloria Ensemble and Choir Vol.8", and the schedule of training, or notices of "Gloria Ensemble and Choir Vol.9". I've already described it in "Gloria Diary 2000" on February 15. So I do not write it again in detail.

But I should add one thing. In this package, there was one score of sheet music.

In "Gloria Ensemble and Choir", usually we have been performed one "instrumental stage", i.e., a stage without chorus. We will be in the same situation in "Gloria Ensemble and Choir Vol.9". The sent score is for this instrumental stage. It means I will join the "instrumental stage" in "Vol.9". I do not write what music in the score is. I let it secret now. :-P I only tell that my role will be "basso continuo" in the "instrumental stage".

I expressed a word of thanks to Mr. Y.Kumekawa about preparing the score via telephone. (He still does not start the activity of internet.) And at once, I requested him to send the music sheet of the part of "Cello and Double-bass". When I get it, I am going to write the numbers as the indication of codes and make it to be "the part of basso continuo".

The part will be arrived at my place about the end of February or the beginning of March. I will gradually be busy and busy to make preparations of the beginning of trainings.

February 22,2001 The other package arrived.

Today, I received the other package that includes music sheet of the part of "Cello and Double-bass", and the recording disk of this music via "traditional" mail from Mr. Y. Kumekawa. It means that I have got all things needed towards the concert activity.

The remaining things are "my studying" and "my training". Until I return to my house in Tochigi from my hometown, the main item to do is the former -- "my studying".

At first, my present aim is "to become to be able to love the pieces of music to perform". In this aim, now, I don't mind my viewpoint, emotional loving or logical attraction. Both are OK. Anyway, it is important to love the music to play. It can be said for any music.

By the way, I am greatly pleased to Mr. Y. Kumekawa. He prepared everything I wanted. I don't know how to thank him enough. He does not have environment of Internet. So it would be good to print this web page and send to him.

February 27,2001 The analysis of the section, "Te decet hymnus,..." and after some measures

Someone may say that I'd better to change the title to "Grand dissection! Michael Haydn's requiem". I don't mind such saying and continue the analysis. The next section has the words as the following.

(i)Te decet hymnus,
Deus in Sion, 
(ii)et tibi reddetur votum
in Jerusalem,
(iii)exaudi orationem meam,
ad te  omnis caro veniet. 
(i) Thou, o God,
art praised in Sion,
(ii) and unto Thee shall
the vow be performed in Jerusalem.
(iii) Hear my prayer,
unto Thee shall all flesh come.

The original sentences are in the left side. I put English translations in the right side. The sentence (i) and (ii) say about "God", and (iii) tells "all flesh come". (The word "flesh" does not mean "meet" but "flesh and blood", i.e.,"human being" in this case.)

W. A. Mozart clearly expressed these contents with music notes and using instruments in his requiem "KV 626".

[The section of 'Te decet hymnus ...' and after some measures in Mozart's requiem. (WAM_Tedecet.gif, 21.0KB)]

He used a solo of soprano to express (i) and (ii). This soprano solo is surrounded by the soft sound mainly from strings. In the term of music, it can be called "p (piano)" and "dolce (softly)".

But the atmosphere of the music suddenly changed from the 26-th measure, which is marked with red line and arrows. It is the starting point of the sentence (iii). Firstly, the song changed from "by solo (one singer)" to "by the mixed chorus". (The word "tutti" directly means "omnis caro (all flesh / all people)".) Secondly, strings changed to play keen figures. Thirdly, three trombones are introduced to emphasize chorus. (I have already mentioned that such technique is called "colla parte".) And fourthly, all parts are indicated with "f (forte)". All of these techniques suggest the sentence of "all flesh come" or "all people come".

Then, how did M. Haydn compose in this section? Let me show the music of the corresponding measures.

[ The section of 'Te decet hymnus ...' and after some measures in M. Haydn's requiem (MH_Tedecet.gif, 12.3KB)]

The border point between (i)-(ii) and (iii) is the 31-th measure, which I marked with red line and arrows. In the sentence (i) and (ii), M. Haydn used the unison of female chorus. (The unison of female chorus is relatively rare.) But it is not by solo like Mozart's requiem. Accompanying instruments are only two groups of violins (They are unison too.) playing triplet of sixteenth note and basso continuo.

After the 31-th measure, the form of chorus changed to mixed chorus of four parts (soprano, alto, tenor, and bass). The figures of violins are in finer notes, i.e., thirty-second notes. And a set of timpani, two of clarino, and trumpets are introduced. The difference between (i),(ii) and (iii) is not as clear as Mozart's, but it certainly exists. The changing to mixed chorus and increasing of instruments also suggest the word, "omnis (all)" .

In addition, after the 35th measure, we find surprisingly using of brass in the period of classical music, and we will understand that it corresponds to the words of chorus. In this "classical music" period, trumpet (including clarino) does not have valve equipment, i.e. it was "natural trumpet". It could sound only the notes of harmonic overtone in narrow region. (Please refer the following picture.)

[Sound of natural trumpet (including clarino) (Natural_trp.gif, 6.55KB)]

So, it was rare that trumpet played the melody. (We can know it from watching the scores of J. Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven. Trumpet could sound few melodies until the invention and spreading of "valve equipment" in the middle of the nineteenth century.)

However, the section of "omnis caro (all flesh / all people)", the two clarini sound the same notes of the chorus of soprano and take melody. (It is the unison of soprano chorus and the two clarini.) To trace melody, the two clarini use harmonic overtone as effectively as possible . It means that "Omnis caro (all flesh / all people)" include the set of clarino. (Please refer the following score.)

[  The section of 'ad te omnis caro ...' in M. Haydn's requiem (MH_adteomnis.gif, 5.68KB)]

In M. Haydn's requiem, we can also find the intention to express the contents of the words with music notes and instruments. Such technique of "expressing the contents of the words" as my preceding mentioning can be found frequently in J. S. Bach's "Messe in h-moll (Mass in B-minor)". Probably, it is possible to say that these kinds of technique were continued by M. Haydn (and perhaps other composers or musicians who were living in the same period) and subsequently developed by W. A. Mozart. In my thought, these sets of techniquie and knowledge were some of the important things in classical music, and most of them had been lost in present classical music field.

By the way, the 1st and the 2nd violins are playing thirty-second notes without any rests in these measures. (I did not show them in the preceding music sheet.) They are complex and seem difficult. I do not anything but say, "Please do your best and good luck for you!" to the players of violins. Oh? Am I going too easy? Indeed! I'm not a player of violin but basso continuo! :-P

"Gloria" Diary 2001(2) →

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